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National abbreviations are set by international agreement. See DCD, collision avoidance. Otherwise the user's messages will get hung up in the system. See also hostname, remote host, TheNET. Host Mode is also used to refer to the condition where a node has a CRT terminal or computer plugged into it that will be used in ASCII mode not using networking protocol. The hostname is usually written in lower case. Obviously the hostname is easier to remember.

This may be a dedicated point-to-point link with only two stations on it, a shared channel on which all stations can hear each other or a shared full duplex channel with a repeater to link the stations. See also hidden transmitter syndrome, repeater, point-to-point link. Most Internet terminals are at government and commercial research facilities and educational facilities. Use of the Internet network is free although use of the computers that are hooked into the Internet may not be.


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Most people who have access to the Internet either pay a fee or have connection to the network from work or school. The core protocol of the ARPA suite. IP is a simple connectionless datagram protocol that handles addressing, fragmentation and type-of-service routing in the heterogeneous internetwork environment. For example: VE2DM's test computer is Compare this with his hostname.

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ISC is now responsible for the control of all radio communication in Canada. ISO formulates and publishes specifications for everything from screw threads to computer communication protocols. See also OSI. On amateur packet signals, phase jitter may cause errors in decoding the data.


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  • It uses the same modulation technique as the G3RUH modem but does not have the adaptive filters. It may be compatable with the G3RUH in some circumstances but not guaranteed. It has been replaced by the new bps modem from TAPR. Also called orbital elements. Tends to be rather slow unless both operators are fast typists. Gives the host computer full access to and control over all fields in each packet. Compensates for the lack of a HDLC hardware controller on many computers. In the case of amateur packet, some suggest that a LAN should not cover an amateur population of more than amateurs and should not have more than one high volume data generator node or server on the same channel to control congestion.

    A properly configured LAN will have a minimum of hidden transmitter syndrome problems. Compare with: wide area network, which is a network covering a large geographical area and often directly linked to other networks on the same channel. A locked node is used by the sysop as a network management device. A locked route is used by the sysop to modify the quality of a route to a neighbor node or to prevent an unreliable route to a neighbor node from affecting the routing process.

    The looped back signal may be either analog or digital. Sometimes also refers to any BBS system handling personal mail. The mark is the resting state in an asynchronous serial system. The negative voltage state on a RS port is called mark.

    Full text of "ARRL's VHF digital handbook [Texte imprimeĢ]"

    One of the two tones in an AFSK modulation is mark. Compare with: space, which is the opposite state. G8BPQ switch software includes such a program. An identification number given to all messages entered on a BBS system. For bulletins it is often the same as the BID. See also BID. The callsigns used all end in MIR. A group of amateurs from Montreal, Quebec who were responsible for the very first amateur packet radio broadcast on May 31, A device which takes the data modulated signal RF, audio or pulse received from the communications channel and restores the data to a form that can be used by the CPU in a computing device or that can be read on a terminal.

    At the same time it converts data from the computing device to a form that can be transmitted out on the communications channel. Most TNCs contain an internal bps modem and have space to plug-in another modem for a different radio data speed. Versions also contain switch node, dxcluster and conference node modes. They publish a newsletter called " Dedicated Link ".

    NEDA is an association that was formed in to support and promote efficient packet network development. Development of network concepts and standards as well as the writing and publication of up-to-date network and general packet information are important goals of NEDA. Implements AX at the link layer L2 , with ad-hoc protocols at the network L3 and transport layer L4. Also provides a command interpreter and " transport level bridge " that patches incoming or outgoing regular AX. Uses datagrams at the network layer, virtual circuit at the transport layer.

    Compare with: ROSE, a network protocol which is similar in function but uses manual management of routing tables rather than automatic dynamic routing. An example would be a network of user ports wire-linked to backbone nodes that are in turn connected to each other by UHF point-to-point links. The network co-ordinator must also try to resolve disputes between various network user groups that would endanger the network efficiency. The network co-ordinator must be very well informed on the latest network techniques and the identity of all operating nodes and servers in his region.

    The network layer specifies the communications between adjacent nodes or networks and interfaces with the User at the level 2 link layer and with distant nodes at the level 4 transport layer protocol. However in normal packet terminology, a node is an intelligent packet data switch and router of real-time data which takes responsibility for the correct delivery towards its destination. Compare with: digipeater, a dumb node that does not take responsibility for does not acknowledge the packet that it repeats. The neighbor nodes use these node broadcasts to update their node routing tables.

    Node broadcasts are the key to dynamic routing method of route table maintenance. Node broadcasts add a significant amount of overhead to the channel. Compare with ROSE: A network protocol that uses manual routing table maintenance and thus does not need node broadcasts. It is a good way to learn about the network and what is available on it. Also called route stepping. Also called site sysop.

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    Also called a node cluster. A binary code format in which binary ones and zeros are represented by two discrete voltage levels and the voltage remains at the indicated level for the duration of the code bit. Compare with RZ or bipolar pulse modulation in which the signal would return to an average level between bits.

    The name NRZ is somewhat confusing but it may come from the magnetic recording industry where zero indicated an unmagnetized state on the tape and binary ones and zeros were indicated by positive or negative magnetization.

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    NRZ is the form that most binary signals take within computer circuitry. See also NRZI. A binary code format in which a data 0 produces a transition either from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0 in the code and a 1 in the data produces no change in the code. It does not mean that the NRZ code is merely inverted. The main advantage of NRZI is that it does not matter at what point in the transmission that one starts to decode, the subsequent data will be the same.

    A volunteer amateur radio system for handling formal traffic messages, traditionally by CW but increasingly by packet and other digital modes in recent years. The obsolescence count is reduced at regular intervals. When the obsolescence count reaches a predetermined value, the node entry is considered obsolete and is no longer broadcast to its neighbors.

    For technical reasons it loaded the RS too much it was replaced by the Hexipus board. See diode matrix, hexipus. Also Ohio Packet Experimenters Network. A project of the ISO to develop a set of computer communication protocols.

    PacComm designs, manufactures and markets a range of packet radio products, both amateur and commercial, including the popular Tiny-2 TNC used in many network nodes. The packet includes addressing information so that the receiving station knows that the packet is for it as well as who sent the packet. A packet may consist of one or more smaller groups of characters called frames. See also datagram, frame. It creates a speciallized BBS for DXers and operates with all users connected in such a way that dx information can be distributed in " real time ".

    An HF digital communications protocol developed in Germany. A device that interfaces an ordinary " dumb " terminal to an X. It gathers typed characters into outgoing packets and translates incoming packets back into serial asynchronous data streams. Also provides a simple command interpreter for setting up and tearing down connections, controlling parameters, etc. The node-ops use these parameters to manage the network and maintain efficient transfer of packets between the various nodes in a network. For more information on node parameters, contact your local node-op or network co-ordinator.

    For odd parity, a 1 or 0 bit is added to 7 data bits so that the total bit count is an odd number. For even parity, the total bit count is made even with the parity bit. Parity words can be similarly used with groups of binary words. If the number is greater, the TNC waits a period of time called slottime and then repeats the process. The p-persistance parameter is usually set to a value equal to divided by one less than the maximum number of stations expected on the channel.

    See also Frack, Dwait, slottime, collision avoidance, back-off. The first byte of the packet frame which identifies which protocol is used for the packet frame.